Main / Glossary / Veblen Goods

Veblen Goods

Veblen goods, named after the economist Thorstein Veblen, are a special category of luxury goods that defy the traditional laws of demand and supply. Unlike regular goods, Veblen goods have an upward-sloping demand curve, meaning that their demand increases as their price rises. This counterintuitive phenomenon occurs due to the distinctive nature and social status associated with these goods. Veblen goods are often seen as symbols of wealth and exclusivity, which creates a peculiar market dynamic.


  1. Price Effect: The price effect of Veblen goods contradicts the basic principle of demand and supply. As the price of a Veblen good increases, its demand also increases, since consumers perceive higher prices as a status symbol and are willing to pay a premium to acquire the goods.
  2. Conspicuous Consumption: Veblen goods are strongly linked to the concept of conspicuous consumption, which refers to the act of buying luxury goods primarily to display one’s wealth and social status. Consumers of Veblen goods may prioritize the desire to showcase their affluence over the inherent functionality or quality of the product.
  3. Exclusivity: Veblen goods often have limited availability or are artificially scarce, leading to an enhanced sense of exclusivity. The scarcity, coupled with high prices, acts as a magnet for consumers seeking to differentiate themselves and gain recognition within their social circles.
  4. Income Elasticity: The demand for Veblen goods is highly income elastic, meaning that as consumers’ incomes increase, the demand for these goods rises proportionally or even more rapidly. This effect can be attributed to the desire for individuals to maintain or elevate their social stature.


  1. Luxury Cars: Some high-end automobile brands, such as Rolls-Royce or Lamborghini, fall into the category of Veblen goods. The exorbitant prices associated with these vehicles contribute to their desirability, as they symbolize a display of wealth and social standing.
  2. Designer Fashion: Certain fashion brands like Chanel, Gucci, or Louis Vuitton are considered Veblen goods. The premium prices associated with their products reinforce their exclusivity and attractiveness to consumers who want to be associated with such luxury brands.
  3. Fine Art: The art market often exhibits Veblen characteristics, with prestigious and sought-after artworks commanding astronomical prices. The status and elitism associated with owning prestigious artwork can create a demand that is detached from the intrinsic value or artistic merit of the piece.
  4. High-End Real Estate: Luxury properties in prime locations, such as penthouses in upscale neighborhoods or exclusive beachfront villas, can be classified as Veblen goods. The limited availability, combined with the high price tag, makes them desirable to wealthy individuals seeking to demonstrate their prosperity.


Veblen goods challenge the traditional concepts of supply and demand, potentially distorting market dynamics. The existence of such goods can lead to market inefficiencies, as prices may not accurately reflect intrinsic value. Additionally, the purchasing behavior associated with Veblen goods may contribute to income inequality and the perpetuation of a conspicuous consumption culture.

Understanding the nuances of Veblen goods is vital for economists, finance professionals, and market analysts. While they may seem to defy conventional logic, Veblen goods play a significant role in the consumer-driven economy, whereby individuals’ desire for status and recognition influences their purchasing decisions. Recognizing the impact of Veblen goods allows for a better understanding of consumer behavior and the underlying forces that shape markets.

Note: Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) was an American economist and sociologist known for his works on institutional economics and the theory of the leisure class. The concept of Veblen goods was introduced in his seminal book The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), wherein he explored the connection between consumption and social class.