# Vertical Analysis Example

The vertical analysis, also referred to as common-size analysis, is a financial tool used to assess the relative importance of different components within a company’s financial statements. By expressing each line item as a percentage of a base value, typically total assets or net sales, vertical analysis facilitates a comprehensive understanding of a company’s financial performance and the trends within its financial statements. This dictionary entry will provide an example of a vertical analysis to illustrate its application and benefits in financial analysis.

To demonstrate a vertical analysis example, let us consider a hypothetical company named XYZ Inc. We will analyze the income statement of XYZ Inc. for the fiscal year ending December 31, 20XX, using net sales as the base value. The income statement includes the following line items:

1. Net Sales: \$500,000
2. Cost of Goods Sold: \$250,000
3. Gross Profit: \$250,000
4. Operating Expenses: \$100,000
5. Operating Income: \$150,000
6. Interest Expense: \$30,000
7. Net Income: \$120,000

To conduct a vertical analysis, we will express each line item as a percentage of net sales. This allows us to understand the contribution of each component to the overall revenue generated by the company.

1. Net Sales: \$500,000 (100%)
2. Cost of Goods Sold: \$250,000 (50%)
3. Gross Profit: \$250,000 (50%)
4. Operating Expenses: \$100,000 (20%)
5. Operating Income: \$150,000 (30%)
6. Interest Expense: \$30,000 (6%)
7. Net Income: \$120,000 (24%)

Now, let’s analyze the vertical analysis example for XYZ Inc. Based on the percentages calculated above, we can make several insightful observations regarding the company’s financial performance.

Firstly, the cost of goods sold accounts for 50% of the net sales. This indicates that half of the revenue generated by the company is attributable to the cost of producing the goods sold. Monitoring this ratio over time can help identify any potential inefficiencies in the production process.

Secondly, the gross profit margin, calculated as gross profit divided by net sales, is 50%. A high gross profit margin suggests that the company effectively manages its production costs or has the ability to charge premium prices for its products. Conversely, a low gross profit margin may indicate pricing pressure or inefficiencies in the production process.

Next, the operating expenses represent 20% of net sales. This percentage provides insights into the company’s ability to control its fixed and variable expenses. By closely monitoring this ratio, management can identify opportunities to reduce costs and improve profitability.

The operating income, obtained by subtracting the operating expenses from the gross profit, amounts to 30% of net sales. This indicates the proportion of revenue remaining after accounting for both the cost of goods sold and the operating expenses. A higher operating income margin indicates more profitability from core operations.

Additionally, the interest expense represents 6% of the net sales. This highlights the company’s financial obligations in terms of debt servicing. Monitoring this ratio can help assess the impact of interest rates on the company’s financial performance and evaluate its ability to meet its debt obligations.

Lastly, the net income, calculated by subtracting the interest expense from the operating income, is 24% of net sales. This reveals the overall profitability of the company and demonstrates how efficiently it operates after considering all expenses.

In conclusion, this example demonstrates the power of vertical analysis in evaluating a company’s financial performance. By expressing each line item as a percentage of a base value, such as net sales, vertical analysis enables comprehensive insights into the relative importance and contribution of different components within financial statements. This information is vital for making informed business decisions, identifying areas for improvement, and monitoring financial trends over time.