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Limits to Arbitrage

Limits to arbitrage refer to the various factors and constraints that can impede the ability of investors to exploit mispricings in financial markets through arbitrage strategies. Arbitrage is the practice of simultaneously buying and selling assets or securities in different markets to profit from price discrepancies. However, limits to arbitrage arise due to various market forces and institutional restrictions that prevent market participants from fully exploiting these opportunities.


Arbitrageurs are individuals or institutions who seek to take advantage of temporary price discrepancies between related securities, commodities, or financial instruments. By buying the underpriced asset and selling the overpriced one, they aim to make risk-free profits. However, limits to arbitrage can significantly hinder the effectiveness of such strategies, making them difficult to execute in practice.

Reasons for Limits to Arbitrage:

1. Transaction Costs:

One major constraint on arbitrage is transaction costs. These costs include brokerage fees, taxes, and other expenses associated with trading. High transaction costs can erode potential profits and make arbitrage opportunities less attractive or even unfeasible.

2. Information Asymmetry:

Another factor limiting arbitrage is information asymmetry, where certain participants possess private information that is not known to the broader market. If the information is costly to obtain or is not publicly available, it can prevent arbitrageurs from fully capitalizing on market inefficiencies.

3. Risk and Uncertainty:

Arbitrage inherently involves taking positions that are expected to be risk-free. However, there is always a degree of risk involved, such as liquidity risk, counterparty risk, or market risk. These risks can dissuade investors from engaging in arbitrage and limit their ability to exploit mispricings effectively.

4. Capital Constraints:

Arbitrage strategies often require significant capital outlays to establish positions in multiple securities or markets simultaneously. Limited access to sufficient funding can act as a barrier for individual investors or smaller firms looking to engage in arbitrage activities.

5. Regulatory and Legal Constraints:

Various regulatory and legal restrictions can also restrict arbitrage opportunities. Some jurisdictions impose limitations on short selling, restrict the use of leverage, or enforce specific trading rules. These constraints further impede arbitrageurs’ ability to execute their strategies.

6. Behavioral Biases:

Lastly, behavioral biases, such as herd mentality and irrational market behavior, can create pricing anomalies that persist longer than expected, making it challenging for arbitrageurs to correct mispriced assets effectively.


Limits to arbitrage can have significant implications for financial markets. Inefficient pricing caused by these limits can lead to prolonged mispricings and potentially distort asset valuations. Moreover, the presence of limits to arbitrage can reduce market liquidity and hinder the overall efficiency of markets.


Understanding the various limits to arbitrage is crucial for market participants, investors, and regulators. Identifying and evaluating these constraints can provide insights into the efficiency and dynamics of financial markets. While the presence of limits to arbitrage may contribute to market inefficiencies, it also presents opportunities for market participants who can navigate and exploit these constraints successfully.