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Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a mathematical formula used in inventory management to determine the optimal order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs while maintaining an adequate stock level. The EOQ model takes into account the costs associated with ordering, holding, and shortage of inventory to help businesses strike a balance between maximizing customer service levels and minimizing inventory costs.


The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a widely accepted inventory management technique that assists businesses in finding the ideal order quantity to minimize inventory-related expenses. By determining the most efficient order quantity, businesses can optimize their inventory control processes and maximize profitability.

The EOQ model is based on the principle that there are costs associated with both ordering and holding inventory. Ordering costs include activities such as placing orders, processing paperwork, and transportation costs. On the other hand, holding costs refer to the expenses associated with storing inventory, including warehousing costs, insurance premiums, and potential obsolescence or deterioration.

The formula for calculating EOQ is as follows:

EOQ = √((2 D S) / H)


– EOQ represents the economic order quantity

– D is the annual demand quantity (in units)

– S is the ordering cost per order

– H is the holding cost per unit per year

By plugging in the appropriate values for D, S, and H, businesses can calculate the EOQ required to minimize costs. However, it is important to note that the EOQ model assumes certainty in demand, constant replenishment rates, and no quantity discounts.

The primary objective of implementing the EOQ model is to strike a balance between two opposite costs: carrying excess inventory and experiencing stockouts. By determining the optimal order quantity, businesses can avoid excessive carrying costs associated with holding excess inventory for extended periods. Similarly, by ordering at the right time, businesses can prevent stockouts and associated costs, such as lost sales and customer dissatisfaction.

Benefits of using EOQ:

  1. Cost reduction: EOQ helps businesses minimize inventory-related costs, such as ordering costs, holding costs, and shortage costs. By optimizing the order quantity, businesses can reduce unnecessary expenses and improve overall profitability.
  2. Improved inventory control: EOQ assists businesses in maintaining an appropriate level of inventory. By avoiding excessive stock or insufficient supply, businesses can enhance their operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.
  3. Time savings: By employing the EOQ model, businesses can save time spent on manual calculations and decision-making. This allows them to dedicate more resources to other critical aspects of their operations.
  4. Cash flow management: By optimizing inventory levels, businesses can allocate their financial resources more effectively. With the EOQ model, businesses can strike a balance between having enough stock to satisfy customer demand and avoiding excessive cash tied up in inventory.

Usage Example:

A manufacturing company utilizing the EOQ model discovered that by adjusting their order quantity from 500 units to 750 units, they could significantly reduce their annual ordering costs while maintaining an acceptable level of inventory. This adjustment resulted in substantial savings of approximately $10,000 annually, highlighting the effectiveness of the EOQ model in optimizing inventory management.

In conclusion, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model is a valuable tool for businesses in determining the optimal order quantity to minimize inventory costs while maintaining adequate stock levels. By considering factors such as ordering costs, holding costs, and demand, businesses can enhance their inventory control processes and improve profitability. Implementing the EOQ model enables businesses to strike a balance between carrying excess inventory and experiencing stockouts, resulting in cost savings and improved operational efficiency.